Our propriety growth metric, Fractional Performance Level™, uses scaled score ranges associated with each performance level (per grade level) to find each student's performance, to the hundredth, within a band. For example, an FPL™ of 2.68 means that the student's performance level is 2, and they are 68% of the way between 2 and 3. We then use the difference between fractional scores in adjacent years to compute change in relative position "between the bands". This growth measurement quantifies each student's improvement or decline, even “between the bands”.
The Distance From Standard is widely used in California as the foundation of the California School Dashboard, but is relevant for any test that uses scale scores to determine if a student has met standard/mastery/proficiency. For example, a DFS of +26 means that the student's performance is 26 points above the minimum score possible to achieve proficiency (for their grade level). We then use the difference between DFS scores in adjacent years to compute the change in DFS, relative to their grade level. This growth measurement quantifies each student's improvement or decline, in scale score points, adjusted to their pre and post grade-levels.
FPL™ and DFS per-student pre/post growth metrics & methodology
See if your students, groups, and subgroups are growing -- fractionally, and "between the bands".
Example of FPL™ and DFS methodology:
Video Explanation of Improvement / Decline in MMARS™