Our propriety growth metric, Fractional Performance Level™, uses scaled score ranges associated with each performance level (per grade level) to find each student's performance, to the hundredth, within a band. For example, an FPL™ of 2.68 means that the student's performance level is 2, and they are 68% of the way between 2 and 3. We then use the difference between fractional scores in adjacent years to compute change in relative position "between the bands". This growth measurement quantifies each student's improvement or decline.
The Pupil Distance From Level 3 (or DF4) is widely used in California as the foundation of the California School Dashboard, but is relevant for any test that uses scale scores to determine if a student has met standard/mastery/proficiency. For example, a DF3 of +26 means that the student's performance is 26 points above the minimum score possible to achieve proficiency (for their grade level). We then use the difference between DFL scores in adjacent years to compute the change in SS, relative to their grade level. This growth measurement quantifies each student's improvement or decline.
FPL™ and DF3 per-student pre/post growth metrics & methodology
See if your students, groups, and subgroups are growing -- fractionally, and "between the bands".
Example of FPL and DF3 methodology:
Video Explanation of Improvement / Decline in MMARS™